Ketogenic diets are research low in carbs and typically very high in fat. Participants were followed for type median of 7. In the study by Goday university of south florida professor ketogenic diet al. The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic VLCK diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type II diabetes mellitus type. FMD cycles were diet able to reverse insulin deficiency in diet models of T1D for T2D [ keto ], and to for insulin deficiency defects keto human cells derived from T1D patients, indicating diabetes potential ground for future studies [ 82, 83 ]. Soon after the first 6 months, the research was free of epileptic crises, presented normalization of EEG, and showed a marked recover in psychological development and quality of life [ 27 ]. State of type 1 diabetes management and outcomes from researxh T1D exchange diabetes — De Goffau et al.
Int J Diabetes Clin Res External Pharmacy, St. From a physiological perspective, glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for cells. Therefore, therapeutic ketosis elevated blood ketone levels can be considered as a metabolic therapy by providing alternative energy substrates, which may have potent cellular protective properties independent of their bioenergetic function [ 10 ]. In fact, after prolonged periods of fasting or ketogenic diet KD, the body utilizes energy obtained from free fatty acids FFAs released from adipose tissue. Large quantities of ketone bodies accumulate in the blood up to 5 mM through this mechanism. This represents a state of normal physiological ketosis and can be therapeutic. Ketone bodies are transported across the blood-brain barrier by monocarboxylic acid transporters to fuel brain function.
Low-carb and ketogenic diets are popular among clinicians and patients, but the appropriateness of reducing carbohydrates intake in obese patients and in patients with diabetes is still debated. Studies in the literature are indeed controversial, possibly because these diets are generally poorly defined; this, together with the intrinsic complexity of dietary interventions, makes it difficult to compare results from different studies. Despite the evidence that reducing carbohydrates intake lowers body weight and, in patients with type 2 diabetes, improves glucose control, few data are available about sustainability, safety and efficacy in the long-term. In this review we explored the possible role of low-carb and ketogenic diets in the pathogenesis and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, we also reviewed evidence of carbohydrates restriction in both pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, through gut microbiota modification, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, addressing the legitimate concerns about the use of such diets in patients who are ketosis-prone and often have not completed their growth. According to the International Diabetes Federation 8th Diabetes Atlas, about million people worldwide have diabetes and, if the current trends continue, million of people aged 20—79 will have diabetes by [ 1 ]. Nutrition is key for preventing type 2 diabetes T2D and obesity, but there are no evidence-based data defining the best dietary approach to prevent and treat these conditions. In the last decades, low carbohydrate diets LCD and ketogenic diets KD have become widely known and popular ways to lose weight, not only within the scientific community, but also among the general public, with best-selling dedicated books or intense discussion on social media networks staying at the top of the diet trend list for years. These dietary approaches are effective for losing weight, but there is growing evidence suggesting that caution is needed, especially when these diets are followed for long periods of time, or by individuals of a very young age or with certain diseases [ 2, 3 ].